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The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Land 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992
1 Japan 2.36731 2.38974 2.39134 2.44302 2.49215
2 Schweiz 2.08125 2.10865 2.20354 2.25586 2.32899
3 Deutschland 2.17723 2.19761 2.19821 2.22515 2.32404
4 Schweden 2.08118 2.1338 2.16649 2.18277 2.25942
5 Österreich 1.86741 1.92154 1.94269 1.95901 2.00948
6 Vereinigtes Königreich 1.8197 1.85354 1.8885 1.92482 1.94726
7 Finnland 1.65903 1.7338 1.8112 1.81157 1.8564
8 Italien 1.70263 1.6687 1.71993 1.71832 1.80255
9 Dänemark 1.56451 1.62226 1.6333 1.69053 1.76411
10 Frankreich 1.62 1.64251 1.58344 1.62708 1.71048
11 Vereinigte Staaten 1.52115 1.53479 1.50659 1.62518 1.69659
12 Belgien 1.50163 1.48931 1.45983 1.43235 1.50294
13 Slowenien 1.43562
14 Irland 1.44454 1.47318 1.4374 1.4218 1.41595
15 Niederlande 1.25419 1.256 1.20143 1.26567 1.35762
16 Spanien 1.14524 1.19786 1.19007 1.14192 1.21133
17 Israel 1.09227 1.17841 1.15976 1.15167 1.08292
18 Kroatien 1.00807
19 Südkorea 0.946263 0.834166 0.898145 0.876456 0.941965
20 Singapur 0.671827 0.648095 0.722376 0.761109 0.941948
21 Hongkong 0.949503 0.898704 0.882933 0.883499 0.909419
22 Norwegen 1.01949 1.03702 1.03133 0.856934 0.886433
23 Ungarn 0.847892 0.833217 0.808804 0.805335 0.859383
24 Mexiko 0.720238 0.71601 0.766842 0.684291 0.805366
25 Bosnien und Herzegowina 0.765632
26 Portugal 0.75562 0.670288 0.651649 0.657358 0.6708
27 Rumänien 0.804159 0.806016 0.798893 0.693089 0.607645
28 Kanada 0.689466 0.774507 0.703285 0.615339 0.580017
29 Moldawien 0.546565
30 Polen 0.80849 0.791207 0.70377 0.666141 0.542584
31 Brasilien 0.33526 0.339519 0.418308 0.417815 0.503414
32 Bulgarien 0.558906 0.569171 0.645641 0.568584 0.429701
33 El Salvador 0.319616 0.296832 0.322887 0.278094 0.400187
34 Weißrussland 0.33228
35 Panama -0.097236 0.01048 0.231381 0.169473 0.329985
36 Neuseeland 0.34395 0.355489 0.318537 0.386536 0.285451
37 China 0.246918 0.234761 0.254205 0.284872 0.269057
38 Malaysia -0.05365 -0.043857 0.077114 0.1658 0.252923
39 Indien 0.126991 0.134137 0.229328 0.214645 0.189609
40 Thailand -0.059027 -0.058231 0.028856 0.059329 0.181246
41 Türkei 0.270537 0.158364 0.143942 0.150355 0.175993
42 Estland 0.154759
43 Trinidad und Tobago -0.024489 0.21133 0.144432 0.23397 0.152904
44 Litauen 0.117757
45 Libanon 0.402064 0.259094 0.222896 0.114161 0.110669
46 Griechenland 0.219048 0.095416 0.152017 0.143166 0.081695
47 Ukraine 0.056669
48 Uruguay 0.343907 0.208406 0.133127 0.065365 0.036769
49 Tunesien 0.130735 -0.025771 -0.030626 -0.114127 0.028
50 Philippinen -0.332234 -0.211546 -0.139151 -0.042884 0.002339
51 Costa Rica -0.00306 -0.003063 -0.07688 -0.013234 -0.004627
52 Jordan 0.519375 0.571932 0.329789 0.325138 -0.017063
53 Südafrika -0.307473 -0.348081 -0.24657 -0.168412 -0.025986
54 Kolumbien -0.178329 -0.108131 -0.183715 -0.086006 -0.040668
55 Argentinien 0.042609 0.094958 0.064197 0.092349 -0.063648
56 Mosambik -0.345335 -0.374334 -0.280503 -0.202467 -0.064139
57 Venezuela -0.310206 -0.20186 -0.249176 0.046246 -0.083257
58 Lettland -0.092093
59 Guatemala -0.114968 -0.220272 -0.140966 -0.124758 -0.099741
60 Russland -0.09975
61 Madagaskar -1.29093 -1.29473 0.075262 0.013554 -0.151469
62 Australien -0.108906 -0.067428 -0.168113 -0.165157 -0.190559
63 Saudi-Arabien -0.209904 -0.027672 0.010843 0.152447 -0.207551
64 Georgia -0.21613
65 Albanien -0.281952 -0.264478 -0.197794 -0.210994 -0.242111
66 Dominikanische Republik -0.130617 -0.248173 -0.298144 -0.314759 -0.270596
67 Jamaika -0.237738 -0.257262 -0.23057 -0.3999 -0.285032
68 Sri Lanka -0.49977 -0.620797 -0.482596 -0.446405 -0.319451
69 Peru -0.24436 -0.270606 -0.3134 -0.206643 -0.322969
70 Ägypten -0.399866 -0.451679 -0.535157 -0.439201 -0.324477
71 Usbekistan -0.349566
72 Marokko -0.299073 -0.418674 -0.384117 -0.367125 -0.359833
73 Honduras -0.669397 -0.681549 -0.518993 -0.42832 -0.369167
74 Mongolei -0.186588 -0.348805 -0.502122 -0.3254 -0.374954
75 Aserbaidschan -0.392366
76 Chile -0.565224 -0.499843 -0.452327 -0.336225 -0.397569
77 Nicaragua -0.440161 -0.480994 -0.441603 -0.601218 -0.413659
78 Vereinigte Arabische Emirate -0.011708 0.062544 -0.222188 -0.307082 -0.419576
79 Kasachstan -0.420723
80 Simbabwe -0.740906 -0.69104 -0.604088 -0.573003 -0.439256
81 Katar 0.292962 0.271141 0.101576 -0.28138 -0.455776
82 Indonesien -0.8393 -0.703247 -0.592783 -0.40801 -0.490949
83 Turkmenistan -0.53812
84 Kuwait 0.32521 0.220934 -0.142634 -0.676866 -0.586543
85 Pakistan -0.490167 -0.638552 -0.547604 -0.56875 -0.608171
86 Bangladesch -0.486923 -0.743294 -0.761861 -0.737013 -0.659387
87 Oman -0.064174 0.288311 -0.011874 -0.263525 -0.661055
88 Syrien -0.424702 -0.508874 -0.540398 -0.474933 -0.733972
89 Jemen -0.908052 -0.978779 -1.07125 -0.842516 -0.768928
90 Algerien -0.292231 -0.257457 -0.649656 -0.645687 -0.798032
91 Kambodscha 0.411623 -0.085926 -0.221593 -0.478344 -0.845222
92 Togo -1.47951 -1.42253 -1.30555 -0.74779 -0.852755
93 Laos -0.588246 -0.278497 -0.438861 -0.62024 -0.864734
94 Senegal -0.726655 -0.637763 -0.788705 -0.712496 -0.880943
95 Bolivien -0.804475 -0.956995 -0.864784 -0.89069 -0.922251
96 Sudan -1.12616 -1.18061 -0.97173 -0.769087 -0.934142
97 Paraguay -0.889779 -0.88285 -0.957365 -0.972881 -0.943227
98 Vietnam -1.02124 -1.02634 -0.921859 -0.981722 -0.963484
99 Kenia -0.973226 -1.03404 -0.977025 -0.831707 -0.976501
100 Ecuador -1.00988 -0.967277 -0.93695 -0.967018 -1.02447
101 Sambia -0.456881 -0.67636 -0.700076 -0.907232 -1.05388
102 Äthiopien -0.964332 -0.971688 -0.932032 -1.04104 -1.0629
103 Tansania -1.21869 -1.15103 -1.09958 -1.20393 -1.1225
104 Gabun -1.49476 -1.22518 -1.34855 -1.35225 -1.12944
105 Guinea -1.72938 -1.78419 -1.51676 -1.36752 -1.17895
106 Birma -1.13781 -1.09078 -1.05308 -1.12979 -1.22432
107 Mauretanien -1.29351 -1.30447 -1.46739 -1.20645 -1.37675
108 Iran -1.19445 -1.21948 -1.28483 -1.22017 -1.44223
109 Kongo, Demokratische Republik -1.24313 -1.20444 -1.14496 -1.17493 -1.46347
110 Kongo, Republik der -1.35371 -1.48802 -1.50959 -1.61876 -1.5417
111 Ghana -1.16574 -1.13832 -1.10949 -1.43848 -1.54193
112 Cote d'Ivoire -1.37116 -1.2969 -1.34105 -1.34779 -1.5516
113 Kamerun -1.77215 -1.72539 -1.76896 -1.65648 -1.88333
114 Angola -1.6952 -1.27093 -1.67635 -2.00679 -2.04018
115 Nigeria -1.64319 -1.72468 -2.01211 -1.84259 -2.17527